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Patulin Printable PDF

Background Information:

Patulin takes it’s name from the fungus from which it was first isolated, Penicillium patulum. It is most likely to occur in moldy fruits, such as apples, but may also be found in grains, especially wet grains, and silages. Patulin may be associated with problems in silages, however the data on that aspect has not been well established. Since Patulin is associated with storage molds, it should be considered when investigating silage problems, specifically regarding dairy catte. Can co-contaminate feedstuffs with other Penicillium toxins, such as, Ochratoxin A (OTA), Citrinin, Roquefortine C, Mycophenolic Acid (MPA), and Cyclopiazonic Acid.

Major crops affected: 

Corn, Barley, Wheat, & Rye, their associated silages, and Fruits.

Associated mold:

Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Byssochlamys sp.

Conditions favoring production:

Penicillium is a major silage mold and may be a greater silage problem because it can grow at lower pH than do other molds. Considered to be more prevalent from a storage mold situation, rather than field/growing condition mold situation.

Symptoms:

Patulin is an antibiotic against gram-positive bacteria. In ruminants, Patulin has been shown to reduce VFA production, fiber digestion, and bacterial yield. Also, nephrotoxic (kidney) and immunotoxic effects. Gastrointestinal symptoms like gastric ulcers, intestinal hemorrages, lesions in the duodenum, and alteration of intestinal barrier function.

Detection Limit:

200 ppb

Dairyland Labs Packages that include Patulin:

  • Mycotoxin Select Package
  • Mycotoxin Complete Package

 

Sources

Diaz, D.E., W.M. Hagler, and L.W. Whitlow. “Mycotoxins in Feeds.” Feedstuffs. 15 Sep. 2010.

Gallo, A., G. Giubuerti, J.C. Frisvad, T. Bertuzzi, and K.F. Nielsen. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects. Toxins 2015, 7, 3057-3111.

Whitlow, L.W., M.B. Genter, W.M. Hagler, Jr., J.A. Hansen, F.T. Jones, B.A. Mowrey, and M.H. Poore. (1994, 2007) Understanding and Coping with Effects of Mycotoxins in Livestock Feed and Forage. North Carolina State Cooperative Extension Service. Dec. 1994.   

Whitlow, L.W., and W.M. Hagler, Jr. Mycotoxins Issues in Dairy Cattle: Effects, Prevention, and Treatment. article.extension.org. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

For more information call Dairyland Laboratories, Inc. at 608-323-2123 or contact us here.