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Trichothecenes

Trichothecenes Printable PDF

Background Information: 

Trichothecenes are a family/group of Fusarium-produced mycotoxins comprising over 200 related compounds of widely varying toxicity. Type A Trichothecenes are generally considered to be more toxic than Type B Trichothecences. Some common Type A Trichothecenes are T-2, HT-2, Neosolaniol, and DAS (Diacetoxyscirpenol). Some common Type B Trichothecenes are Vomitoxin (DON -Deoxynivalenol), 3-Acetyl DON, 15-Acetyl DON, Nivalenol, and Fusarenon X. It is very common to have samples contaminated with two or more Trichothecenes, which may result in synergistic effects as well as individual effects.

Major crops affected:

Cereal grains and their corresponding silages.

Associated mold:

Fusarium sp.

Conditions favoring production:

Cool and wet weather

Symptoms:

Digestive disorders (vomiting, diarrhea, gastroenteritis, hemorrhages, necrosis, ulcers, reduced feed intake, & feed refusal); reduced feed efficiency, reduced weight gain or slowed growth; anorexia, dermatitis, weight loss, depression, edema, blood disorders, oral lesions/irritations, infertility, immunosuppression, and even death (severe cases).

Dairyland Labs Packages that include Trichothecenes:

  Individual Request Mycotoxin Basic Mycotoxin Select Mycotoxin Complete Detection Limit
Vomitoxin (DON) X X X X 0.1 ppm
T-2/HT-2 X X X X 5 ppb
3 & 15 Acetyl DON     X X 0.1 ppm
Nivalenol       X 0.1 ppm
Fusarenon X       X 0.1 ppm
Neosolaniol       X 100 ppb
DAS (Diacetoxyscirpenol)       X 100 ppb

Sources

Adams, Richard S., Kenneth B. Kephart, Virginia A. Ishler, Lawrence J. Hutchinson, and Gregory W. Roth. “Mold and Mycotoxin Problems in Livestock Feeding.” Dairy Cattle Nutrition (Penn State Extension). Penn State Extension, n.d. Web. 17 Sep. 2013.

Coulombe, R.A., Jr. 1993. Symposium: Biological Action of Mycotoxins. Journal of Dairy Science. 76:880-891.

Whitlow, L.W., F.T. Jones, M.B. Genter, W.M. Hagler, Jr., J.A. Hansen, B.A. Mowrey, and M.H. Poore. (1994, 2007). Understanding and Coping with Effects of Mycotoxins in Livestock Feed and Forage. North Carolina State Cooperative Extension Service. Dec. 1994.

Whitlow, L.W., and W.M. Hagler, Jr. Mold and Mycotoxin Issues in Dairy Cattle: Effects, Prevention, and Treatment. articles.extension.org. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

Whitlow, L.W., W.M. Hagler, Jr., and D.E. Diaz. Mycotoxins in feeds. Feedstuffs. 15 September 2010, pages 74-84.

Yiannikouris, A., and Jean-Pierre Jouany. 2002. Mycotoxins in feeds and their fate in animals: a review. INRA, EDP Sciences. Anim. Res. 51 (2002) 81-99.

For more information call Dairyland Laboratories, Inc. at 608-323-2123 or contact us here.