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Vomitoxin (DON)

Vomitoxin (DON) Printable PDF

Background Information:

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin. It is most commonly referred to as “Vomitoxin”, because of one of it’s potential side-effects of vomiting.

Major crops affected:

Cereal grains and their corresponding silages.

Associated mold:

Fusarium sp.

Conditions favoring production:

Wet, rainy and humid weather from flowering to harvest in corn and small grains. The results are Gibberella ear rot in corn and scab or head blight in sorghum, barley, wheat, oats and rye. Low temperatures following infection may increase DON production. DON can proliferate in stored grain with high moisture contents.

Symptoms:

Digestive disorders (vomiting, diarrhea, reduced feed intake, & feed refusal); reduced feed efficiency, reduced weight gain or slowed growth; anorexia (DON increases the secretion of satiety hormones in the gastrointestinal tract, subsequently disturbing the levels of serotonin in the brain, & therefore leads to changes in appetite. Also, DON induces the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and with an increased concentration of cytokines in the brain leads to reduced feed intake.); depression; hemorrhages (stomach, heart, intestine, lung, bladder, & kidney); edema (inflammation); oral lesions; dermatitis; blood disorders (anemia & leukopenia); infertility & abortions; immunosuppression; and even mortality.

Dairyland Labs Packages that include Vomitoxin (DON):

  • Individual Mycotoxin request
  • Mycotoxin Basic Package
  • Mycotoxin Select Package
  • Mycotoxin Complete Package

Interpretation Guidelines

Interpretation Guidelines Level
Detection Limit 0.1 ppm
Concern Level (TRDM)* 0.56 ppm
Potentially Harmful Level** TRDM (Cattle) 2.5 - 6.0 ppm
Potentially Harmful Level** TRDM (Swine) 0.6 - 1.0 ppm

*Level indicating possible favorable conditions for mycotoxins and probable need for further testing of all feeds or the TMR.  Pending further tests, negative samples should be considered at concern levels in the presence of moderate symptoms and at harmful levels with marked symptoms.  Limit amounts fed if moderate performance effects are present.  Discontinue use at least temporarily if pronounced performance effects or acute clinical symptoms are present.  Closely observe animals and continue checking for other possible causes.

 **Mycotoxins at these levels indicate probably involvement in performance effects or acute clinical symptoms.  Discontinue feeding at least temporarily in the presence of either type of symptoms.  Observe animals closely in the absence of symptoms and do further testing of all feeds or the TMR.

TRDM = total ration dry matter

FDA Guidance Levels

Class of Animal Feed & Portion of the Diet DON Levels in Feed Ingredients DON Levels in Total Ration
Ruminating BEEF and feedlot cattle older than 4 months Grain and grain by-products  10 ppm 10 ppm
Ruminating BEEF and feedlot cattle older than 4 months Distillers grains, brewers grains, gluten meals, and gluten feeds derived from grains not to exceed 33% of total ration 30 ppm 10 ppm
Ruminating DAIRY cattle older than 4 months Grain and grain byproducts not to exceed 50% of the diet 10 ppm 5 ppm
Ruminating DAIRY cattle older than 4 months Distillers grains, brewers grains, gluten meals, and gluten feeds derived from grains not to exceed 17% of total ration 30 ppm 5 ppm
Chickens Grain and grain byproducts not to exceed 50% of the diet 10 ppm 5 ppm
Swine Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 20% of the diet 5 ppm 1 ppm
All other animals Grain and grain by-products not to exceed 40% of the diet 5 ppm 2 ppm

Sources

Adams, Richard S., Kenneth B. Kephart, Virginia A. Ishler, Lawrence J. Hutchinson, and Gregory W. Roth. “Mold and Mycotoxin Problems in Livestock Feeding.” Dairy Cattle Nutrition (Penn State Extension). Penn State Extension, n.d. Web. 17 Sep. 2013.

Carlson, M.P., and S.M. Ensley. Understanding Fungal (Mold) Toxins (Mycotoxins). University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. June 2003. articles.extension.org. Web. 3 Feb. 2016

Coulombe, R.A., Jr. 1993. Symposium: Biological Action of Mycotoxins. Journal of Dairy Science. 76:880-891.

Fink-Gremmels, Johanna. 2008. Mycotoxins in cattle feeds and carry-over to dairy milk: A review. Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 25:2, 172-180, DOI: 10.1080/02652030701823142.

Whitlow, L.W., F.T. Jones, M.B. Genter, W.M. Hagler, Jr., J.A. Hansen, B.A. Mowrey, and M.H. Poore. (1994, 2007). Understanding and Coping with Effects of Mycotoxins in Livestock Feed and Forage. North Carolina State Cooperative Extension Service. Dec. 1994.

Whitlow, L.W., and W.M. Hagler, Jr. Mold and Mycotoxin Issues in Dairy Cattle: Effects, Prevention, and Treatment. articles.extension.org. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

Whitlow, L.W., W.M. Hagler, Jr., and D.E. Diaz. Mycotoxins in feeds. Feedstuffs. 15 September 2010, pages 74-84.

Yiannikouris, A., and Jean-Pierre Jouany. 2002. Mycotoxins in feeds and their fate in animals: a review. INRA, EDP Sciences. Anim. Res. 51 (2002) 81-99.

 
For more information call Dairyland Laboratories, Inc. at 608-323-2123 or contact us here.